This volume unites a wide range of papers given at the international conference "Italy and Europe's Eastern Border. 1204-1669" in Rome in November 2010. Its content reflects the manifold research topics of a European scholarly community united in the joint endeavor to shape new aspects and to promote innovative fields of Mediterranean Studies. Therefore, various approaches to the overall topic can be found in this volume, be it from the viewpoint of war and religion, frontier and border studies, the union of churches, diplomacy, theology, economic history, humanism, diplomatics, historiography, prosopography, or genealogy. This is the first volume of the series "Eastern and Central European Studies" and at the same time an incentive for volumes to follow, which will guide the reader on his journey through space and time to hitherto unknown shores of Eastern European and Mediterranean Studies.