Research directions in materials science include the development of methods to organize and pattern materials systems with periodicity in two or three dimensions and with features on the nanometer-length scale. Applications for these nanoscale structures range from chemical to biological sensors, nanoscale reactors, structural materials, electrical and optical devices, and two- or three-dimensional photonic systems. This book, first published in 2002, focuses on the ability to manipulate and utilize nanostructured materials. Self-organizing organic, inorganic and organic/inorganic hybrid materials, as well as complex phases formed by the interaction of light with solids are featured. Novel processing techniques that contribute to the ability to control order and shape in nanoscale systems are also highlighted. Patterning involving molecular and mesoscale (submicron) objects are addressed, as are surface templating, fluidics, multiphoton lithography to create complex structures on small-length scales.Topics include: surfactant and polymer templating; surface patterning; nanoscale electronics; electronic, optical and magnetic arrays; optical patterning and materials; photonic and nanoscale materials.