Counterinsurgency is a complex phenomenon that needs complex answer. Any attempt at reductionism can be an invitation to disaster. Though it is very much a form of warfare, and can fit into the description given by Jomini as wars of opinion or Clausewitzian wars of resistance. The research for the present book was carried out under the sponsorship of Gen D K Palit and Chatrapati Shivaji fellowship of the USI. This book is a cumulative result of over two decades of study of counterinsurgency and peace process by the author. The book encompasses the study of tribal insurgency in Northeast India, Kashmir, Sri Lanka, Communist or Naxalite revolt, South African uprising against Racist regime and troubles in Northern Ireland.