Transport costs have been, and still are, an important component of trade costs, which are one the major determinants of the volume of trade, and thus of gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP growth. Studies show that two of the main determinants of transport costs are regulatory frameworks in transport sectors and transport infrastructure. The productivity and competitiveness of goods and services firms depends largely on access to low-cost and high-quality transport services, and those services have a powerful influence on economic growth. Countries commit themselves to increasing the efficiency of transport services, which can largely be achieved through increased competition and hence through liberalization of transport sectors. Since barriers to trade in transport services are typically regulatory in nature, this bookprovides a thorough discussion of international, regional, and country specific rules and regulations in those sectors. Concentrating on the EU, and Turkey in particular, it considers rules and regulations in transport sectors. It shows that economic liberalization pursued unilaterally, multilaterally, orregionally has beneficial effects for Turkey, and that the benefits from such liberalization are substantial. Furthermore, the volume shows that transport infrastructure is an important determinant of exports, and hence GDP and GDP growth.