This book grew out of lectures on geophysical fluid dynamics delivered over many years at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology by the author (and, with regard to some parts of the book, by his colleagues). During these lectures the students were advised to read many books, and sometimes individual articles, in order to acquaint themselves with the necessary material, since there was no single book available which provided a sufficiently complete and systematic account (except, perhaps, the volumes on Hydrophysics of the Ocean, Hydrodynamics of the Ocean, and Geodynamics in the ten-volume Oceanology series published by Nauka Press in 1978-1979; these refer, however, specifically to the ocean, and anyway they are much too massive to be convenient for study by students). As far as we know, no text corresponding to our understanding of geophysical fluid dynamics has as yet been published outside the Soviet Union. The present book is designed to fill this gap. Since it is customary to write the preface after the entire book has been completed, the author has an opportunity there to raise some points of possible criticism by the reviewers and readers. First of all, note that this work presents the theoretical fundamentals of geophysical fluid dynamics, and that observational and experimental data (which in the natural sciences are always very copious) are referred to only rarely and briefly.