A volume in Research on Education in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle EastCynthia Szymanski Sunal and Kagendo Mutua, Series EditorsThis is Book V in the series, Research on Education in Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East. The seriesstrives to encourage the presentation of evidence based investigations using data collected on site from thethree world regions it considers. A strong focus is on data specific to a nation or to a region within a nation, aswe recognize that nations are diverse, often encompassing regions with unique cultural and geographic characteristics.The data are rooted in the voices of individuals and communities. Such evidential data are analyzed and interpretedwithin the context of the complex human and natural environments from which they are derived. Chaptersin the books within the series describe investigations that are part of an effort to continue the publicationof an annual compilation of research studies in the three world regions upon which the series focuses. Theseries, therefore, indicates that the need to develop modern, self-sufficient, independent, and post-colonialsocieties is being balanced with the need to strengthen cultural values and identities within these three world regions.Book V in the series focuses on how the educational challenges found in these three world regions are addressed. The chapters specifically examinerelated recent research, identify useful investigative methodologies, identify accomplishments in meeting challenges, and consider unresolved challenges.The overarching questions presented below were derived from an analysis of the questions, methods, and conclusions presented in the studiesappearing in this book. These overarching questions described here reflect the connections between educational issues that emerged in the 20thcenturyand issues identified in the 21st century.