Air Force war-fighting capabilities have a proud heritage of being born from the very best science and technology our Nation can create; indeed, the very history of the United States Air Force is closely intertwined with the development of advances in science and technology. Yet today, "flattening" of the world is making it increasingly challenging for the U.S. to maintain technology superiority over potential adversaries. A growing number of nations soon will have the ability to transform science and technology advances into militarily significant capabilities. Over the next decades, we will increasingly face potential adversaries having peer or near-peer capabilities. This book examines the key areas of science and technology that the Air Force must focus on over the next two decades to enable technologically achievable capabilities that can provide it with the greatest U.S. Joint force effectiveness by 2030.