This book examines the changing dynamics of power in the international arena since the end of the Cold War. It engages in analysis of how the United States and the European Union have responded to the so-called rise of China through an examination of how policymakers' perceptions of China have changed over time and influenced their policy choices. Taking the time period of 1989-2009, it undertakes rigorous analysis of how these perceptions evolved, offering a comparative perspective on the similarities and differences between the policy discourse and behaviour within these two Western powers. Brown argues that 'China's rise' is a contested notion, with varied perceptions of the implications of China's ascendancy have shaped policy preferences in ways that are inconsistent with concerns over the threat of an impending power-transition. Combining concepts and methods derived from IR and FPA it examines the linkages between great power politics and policymakers' competing interpretations of key international actors, and their influence upon foreign policies.The main objective is to illuminate the different ways in which the US and the EU have responded to the rise of China through a close analysis of their decision-making processes and outcomes across a series of key encounters and events, including the transatlantic debate over the EU's proposal to lift its China arms embargo (2003-2005). Drawing on extensive semi-structured interviews with policy elites, and US cables obtained via Wikileaks, the arms embargo case study offers considerable new insights into this dispute and provides a new perspective on the debate. Undertaking qualitative analysis of the development of American and European policymakers' perceptions of China and how these have influenced policy choices at key junctures in their respective relationships, it will be of interest to graduates and scholars of post-Cold War international politics, Foreign Policy Analysis, policymaking, US-China relations and EU-China relations.