This book addresses the critical issue of how and why European universities are changing and learning to compete. Anglo-Saxon universities particularly in the US, the UK and Australia have long been subject to, and responded to, market-based competition in higher education. The authors argue that Continental and Nordic universities and higher education institutes are now facing similar pressures that are leading to a structural transformation of the university sector.Four important themes are addressed, namely `Emergent Strategies', `Diversification and Specialization', `Rethinking University-Industry Relations' and `Reflections'. Contributors include Luke Georghiou writing about the merger between The Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST; Andrea Bonaccorsi writing about differentiation in higher education; and Maryann Feldman writing about American technology transfer. Thus, the book provides a timely and critical reflection on what happens, as European universities transform from government-funded social institutions to become knowledge businesses operating in a competitive regime.This study will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, academics and policymakers with an interest in understanding the major transformations universities are currently undergoing. Regardless of whether one believes that increasing competition has positive or negative effects, the changes will undoubtedly affect both academics and students. These transformations will also influence the ability of nations to compete in the global knowledge society.