This document provides an overview of the current scientific knowledge available on climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture. It contains three technical papers presented and discussed during the Expert Workshop on "Climate Change Implications for Fisheries and Aquaculture" (Rome, 7-9 April 2008). A summary of the workshop outcomes as well as key messages on impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and on fisheries- and aquaculture-based livelihoods are provided in the introduction. The first paper addresses climate variability and change and their physical and ecological consequences on marine and freshwater environments. The second paper tackles the consequences of climate changes impacts on fishers and their communities and reviews possible adaptation and mitigation measures that could be implemented. Finally, the third paper addresses specifically the impacts of climate change on aquaculture and review possible adaptation and mitigation measures that could be implemented.