This is the first book which describes completely the nontraditional difference schemes which combine the ideas of Pade-type approximation and upwind differencing. These possess some favorable properties and can be used to solve various problems in fluid dynamics and related disciplines. They were proposed by the author in the seventies and are extensively used in Russia. However, they seem to be relatively unknown outside the country. In this book, the author presents the theory of the schemes, to provide some sophisticated algorithms for different computational fluid dynamics problems, to supply readers with useful information which would permit them to construct a rich variety of algorithms of this type and to illustrate the applications of these methods to the numerical simulation of various fluid dynamics phenomena, ranging from supersonic viscous flows to some atmosphere and ocean processes. This book is an essential guide for anyone keenly interested in this field.