The drive toward new semiconductor technologies is intricately related to market demands for cheaper, smaller, faster, and more reliable circuits with lower power consumption. The development of new processing tools and technologies is aimed at optimizing one or more of these requirements. This goal can, however, only be achieved by a concerted effort between scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators in research, development, and manufac- turing. It is therefore important that experts in specific disciplines, such as device and circuit design, understand the principle, capabil- ities, and limitations of tools and processing technologies. It is also important that those working on specific unit processes, such as lithography or hot processes, be familiar with other unit processes used to manufacture the product. Several excellent books have been published on the subject of process technologies. These texts, however, cover subjects in too much detail, or do not cover topics important to modem tech- nologies. This book is written with the need for a "bridge" between different disciplines in mind. It is intended to present to engineers and scientists those parts of modem processing technologies that are of greatest importance to the design and manufacture of semi- conductor circuits. The material is presented with sufficient detail to understand and analyze interactions between processing and other semiconductor disciplines, such as design of devices and cir- cuits, their electrical parameters, reliability, and yield.