Through advanced characterization and new fabrication techniques, the physics, chemistry, and structure of functional materials have become a central focus of investigation in materials science, chemistry, physics, and engineering. This book presents a detailed overview of recent research developments on functional materials, including nanomaterials, synthesis, characterization, and applications. A series of chapters provides state-of-the-art information on structures and performance of polymer composites. This volume contains topical articles by prominent leaders in this field. The research presented discusses design principles, candidate materials and systems, and current advances, and serves as a useful source of insight into this field. This book provides a strong understanding of the primary types of materials and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties. The relationships among processing, structure, properties, and performance components are explored throughout the chapters.